PROBLEMAS EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS SERVIDAS EN LOCALIDADES RURALES.

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De acuerdo a las exigencias medioambientales a nivel mundial y nacional, ya es una obligación que nuestro país trate las aguas servidas que se generan en nuestros domicilios, también que cada empresa comercial e industrial trate sus riles (Residuos industriales líquidos). En Chile, existe un alto porcentaje de ciudades que ya cumplen con la normativa vigente, la tendencia, no se remite tan sólo a las localidades urbanas, hoy comienzan a construirse cada vez más plantas de tratamiento en lugares rurales, donde el operador del servicio de agua potable es un Comité ó Cooperativa. Las tecnologías implementadas y adoptadas son las mismas que existen en las ciudades, con el mismo grado de complejidad en su operación.

Esta situación reviste gran relevancia, si se considera que la inversión que realiza el Estado chileno en una localidad rural, en una planta de este tipo, normalmente, supera los 500 millones de pesos y lejos de dar solución a un problema se crean otros mayores, como producto que nadie sabe operar estas plantas. Son las Municipalidades quienes normalmente operan estas, una vez terminadas de construir y entregadas a la comunidad. Estas entidades no tienen la capacidad ni está en sus funciones el realizar una tarea de este tipo, por lo que habitualmente se llenan de sumarios sanitarios y todo tipo de sanciones emitidas por los organismos fizcalizadores por no cumplir con los parametros exigidos en la normativa a raíz del mal funcionamiento y mala operación de los sistemas de tratamiento. Un claro ejemplo, es la planta construida en Laraquete, Concepción y Carelmapu, Puerto Montt que se encuentran con muchos problemas.

La FENAPRU, dentro de su labor, ha solicitado insistentemente a las autoridades que se busquen tecnologías simplificadas y de baja complejidad para el tratamiento de las aguas servidas en estas localidades rurales, sólo esto permitirá un buen manejo de estas plantas por los propios entes ya encargados de suministrar el agua potable, que son los Comités y Cooperativas.

El APR Entre Lagos, de la provincia de Osorno, ha encargado a INACAP, formule los contenidos necesarios para entregar una capacitación importante con una duración de unos 6 meses, donde se entreguen los conocimientos teóricos y prácticos a los funcionarios de los Comités que tenga plantas de tratamiento y para quienes tengan ya proyectada la futura construcción.

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