CARTA ABIERTA A LA CIUDADANIA SOBRE EL PROYECTO MINI CENTRALES HIDROELÉCTRICAS

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CARTA ABIERTA A LA CIUDADANIA SOBRE EL PROYECTO “MINI CENTRALES HIDROELÉCTRICAS DE PASADA PALMAR-CORRENTOSO”
EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL PUYEHUE

 

Santiago 16 de enero 2009

 

HidroAustral S.A., filial del grupo energético italiano Idroenergía, presentó en agosto del 2007 un proyecto por US$ 20 millones de una central hidroeléctrica de pasada (13 MW), emplazada en los ríos Pulelfu y Correntoso, ubicados en la Comuna de Puyehue. Las obras de bocatoma y parte de las tuberías de conducción de las aguas se localizan en el extremo sur poniente del Parque Nacional Puyehue, área protegida desde 1941 y parte de la Reserva de la Biosfera de los Bosques Templados Lluviosos de Los Andes Australes desde 20 de septiembre 2007 El proyecto ingresó al SEIA y fue aprobado con 8 votos a favor y 7 en contra mediante la Resolución Exenta N° 380 de 03 de julio de 2008, COREMA de la Región de los Lagos: a favor se pronunció intendente, gobernadores, SEREMI de Agricultura, y dirección nacional de CONAF, a pesar de la oposición de la dirección regional de la Región de Los Lagos. La Ministra de Medio Ambiente, Ana Lya Uriarte, declaró: “esta generación de energía tiene por objeto constituir un negocio, lo cual es incompatible con el concepto de Parque Nacional” (Ecoamérica, 2/9/2008)..Parlamentarios presentaron un recurso de protección ante la Corte de Apelaciones de Puerto Montt (Ecoamérica, 3 de septiembre) que fue rechazado: “no se advierte en el actuar de la Corema Décima Región, al proceder a calificar favorablemente el proyecto”…“ilegalidad o arbitrariedad alguna”. La sentencia fue apelada a la Corte Suprema con los siguientes argumentos:


 Incumplimiento del Art. 12 de la Ley Nº 19.300: las medidas de mitigación “no resultan suficientes o apropiadas con los objetivos de preservación y conservación de un Parque Nacional”;

 

 “La ejecución del proyecto conllevará impactos ambientales significativos en el Parque: la disminución del caudal de los ríos Correntoso y Pulelfu, pérdida de la cobertura vegetal, alteración de la fauna acuática y alteración de la calidad del paisaje”;


 “La flora de esta área protegida se vería seriamente vulnerada debido por la corta de vegetación nativa para la ejecución de obras civiles (bocatomas, tuberías, y caminos de
acceso)”. Se generará “la alteración del hábitat acuático de poblaciones de especies hidrobiológicas”;


 La RCA se dictó “en contravención legal” contra la garantía del n° 8 del artículo 19 de la Constitución Política de la República”. El 8 de enero la Corte Suprema emitió un fallo dividido en contra del recurso porque “no existe acto ilegal respecto del cual se pueda intentar cautela”. La ministra Sonia Araneda sostuvo que las medidas de mitigación "no resultan suficientes o apropiadas" (Corte Suprema: Recurso  6397/2008 ). Por la relevancia de este fallo declaramos como profesionales de la conservación de la naturaleza:


 La sentencia de la Corte Suprema es una evaluación jurídica y no técnica;


 La ejecución del proyecto viola la Convención de Washington subscrita por Chile en 1967 y que señala: “los parques nacionales no serán alterados ni enajenada parte alguna de ellos sino por acción de la autoridad legislativa competente. Las riquezas existentes en ellos no se explotarán con fines comerciales”;


 Este fallo constituye un peligroso antecedente, afirmando: “es posible realizar proyectos u obras en parques nacionales y otras áreas protegidas", y contraviniendo a las indicaciones del OCDE en materia ambiental y a la Convención de Washington;


 Una central es incompatible con la función de un Parque Nacional. Las actividades permitidas son: investigación, educación y turismo de la naturaleza, coherentes con su objetivo de manejo: “protección de la integridad ecológica de uno o más ecosistemas de importancia internacional, nacional y regional” (IUCN: Directrices para las Categorías de Manejo de Áreas Protegidas, 1994). Declarar “Áreas Protegidas” pierde su eficacia si se admiten proyectos que alteran irreversiblemente los mismos ecosistemas que estas protegen por ley;


 El PN Puyehue, declarado en 1941 bajo la Ley de Bosques para “fomentar el turismo”, se rige, como los demás PN chilenos, por la Convención de Washington firmada en 1967;



 PN Puyehue y el PN Vicente Pérez Rosales son los que más especies de anfibios poseen en Chile, grupo con el más alto grado de endemismo y internacionalmente en peligro por destrucción y perturbación de hábitat (Lista Roja UICN de Especies Amenazadas, 2008). El PN Puyehue posee 12 especies de anfibios y 2 en categoría de Vulnerables, cuyas poblaciones decrecen (CONAF: Plan de Manejo Parque Nacional Puyehue, 1995);


 La Corte Suprema próximamente examinará el recurso de protección presentado por el Consejo de Defensa de la Patagonia (20/12/2008) contra la COREMA que inició el EIA del Proyecto Hidroeléctrico HidroAysén, sin considerar un tratado entre Chile y Argentina sobre recursos hídricos del 1991. Dicho tratado exige un Plan General de Utilización de cuencas transfronterizas ante proyectos que puedan afectarlas, lo cual no fue incluido por Endesa-Colbún;


 Desde junio de 2008 la Comisión para la Cooperación Ambiental (CCA) entre Chile y Canadá ha iniciado un juicio en contra el Estado de Chile por incumplimiento del tratado del 1991. Este pronunciamiento de la Corte Suprema, no está sustentado en bases técnicas, y sus consecuencias van más allá de este caso particular, vulnerando la Convención de Washington y autorizando intervenciones en áreas protegidas, en contra de la política de los últimos 40 años.


Agrupación Estudiantil y Profesional Conser-V-acción
Magíster en Áreas Silvestres y Conservación de la Naturaleza
Universidad de Chile

 

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